Sophia Jaury, 9B
The first cause of water pollution is agriculture. On farms, farmers sprays chemical pesticides on the crops the grow, so that they can get rid of the pests, to increase their crop yields and farm outputs. But then, the pesticides that are not absorbed by the plants are washed from the land and percolate into groundwater, which creates water pollution.
The second cause is domestic waste, which is human waste. Human waste carries a lot of pathogenic (disease producing) micro-organism. Domestic waste also includes detergents, metals, and many more product containing toxic chemical.
The third one is industry. Industry processing metal ores, metal-using industries, and the leaching of metals from waste. Among the metals detected most are mercury, copper, manganese, nickel, chromium, lead, and arsenic.
Now, the regulations exist and are enforced, for domestic and industrial waste to be treated before being released.
Consequences of water pollution
Eutrophication: Eutrophication is the process by which a water ecosystem increases in productivity, leading to the formation of algal blooms. This is due to increased nutrient input, often nitrogen and phosphorus from human sources. In extreme cases of eutrophication, rivers and lakes are no longer able to support fish life, because the fishes got a lack of oxygen. How does eutrophication affects the natural water ecosystem?
-Fertilizer and animal waste from farms
-Enriched nutrient content in rivers and lakes (eutrophication)
-Algae grow fast and multiply
-When algae decay and die they are broken up by decomposers
-Decomposition of dead bodies uses up oxygen
-Fish die due to lack of O2
Water pollution can also cause sickness and diarrhea. On a longer term damage, it can cause developments on certain cancers, such as skin cancer. For human health, the metals of greatest concern are probably lead, mercury, arsenic, and cadmium. If the water have polluted the drinking water supplies also, such as arsenic and mercury, which is poisonous, it can cause brain damage if we consume it on a high level (consume lots of it)
Ways of improving water quality and supply
To improve the quality of water, we should cut the sources of pollution, such as, make sure that there are no chemical pesticides or human and industrial waste that comes in the water supply, and allows time for nature to take its course and repair the damage by itself, without is interfering.
The easiest way that we can do is, replacing domestic detergents by soap. If a lot of people are doing this, it would surely deplete the water pollution level.
Providing clean water to rural areas in developing countries
International awareness of the importance of improving access to safe water for millions of people in developing countries has been increased by the work of charities such as water aid and by organizations like the UN (United Nations).
By providing clean water supply in homes, more time is spent on productive activities, such as, they do not have to walk pass, through rivers just to get a clean water supply, for example, to wash their eating utensils. By providing clean water, they can use their time more efficiently. And also, people who had migrated to the cities are coming back to the village, because the living standard has improved.